BOOK: GARDNER’S “ART THROUGH THE AGES”
SECTION: “THE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE AND ROCOCO.
READ: THE “PROTO-RENAISSANCE” IN ITALY.
Fun Trivia: Pivotal Artists of the Early Renaissance.
Giotto di Bondone (1266-1337), Florentine. Possibly mentored by Cimabue who was trained in the Byzantine tradition. Giotto was discovered at age ten after drawing grazing sheep in a field. He became known as the great observer, an imitator of nature – not a copier of artistic style. New development, “viewer” is not gazed upon by figures in the frescoes. Meaning retains moral and spiritual messages. Figures are foreshortened, they overlap, and are emotional. Scenes can be dramatic.
Masaccio (1401-1428), Florentine. First to utilize Brunelleschi’s system of perspective to frescoes. Color gradients and chiaroscuro create illusion of three-dimensionality. Traces of influences from Roman and Greek antiquities.
Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510), Florentine. Painted using code based on Neo-Platonism. Possibly mentored by Filippo Lippi and possibly Andrea del Verrocchio. Sometimes employed a non-naturalistic use of color, and combined plants from different seasons. Subjects can be complex and ambiguous. Aesthetics are graceful with linear rhythms.
Lorenzo Ghiberti Utilized Brunelleschi’s perspective in sculpture/bas relief. “Ghiberti had re-invented the lost-wax casting of bronze-casting as it was used by the ancient Romans.”
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446) Invented linear perspective and Renaissance architecture using geometrical aesthetics. He designed and engineered the dome of the Florence Cathedral. He also invented “hydraulic machinery and elaborate clockwork.”
Donatello (1386-1466), Florentine. Utilized Brunelleschi’s system of perspective. Created the first free-standing nude and life size sculpture in a 1000 years. Sensual forms and surfaces. Nuanced political message in Donatello’s “David,” referencing the political tensions between Milan and Florence.