Affresco/Fresco A process of mixing pigments dissolved with water on fresh plaster. This technique was widely used from the late 1200 to 1650.
Arriccio The preliminary rough layering of plaster mixture over masonry. The textured plaster meant to hold more plaster layers.
Cartone/Cartoon Popular in the 1400s, a technique of creating smaller drawings or set of drawings comprising a large scale image on paper or fabric to be transferred to the plaster surface for painting. Lines made by a stylus were incised on the plaster.
Giornata Over the arriccio layer, patches of smooth layers of plaster that were added daily. Joinings reveal the order the painting was created. In Massacio‘s The Holy Trinity, you can see the daily patches and it seems as though the artist labored about 28 days.
Intonaco– Lime and sand make up the final plaster layer, extra smooth for painting on it, being worked in sections.
Mezzo fresco– Semi-dry plaster painting, widely used in the 1500s. Pigments saturate the plaster less than the “”True Fresco” method.
Secco/Dry– Painting on dry plaster using pigments combined with a binder of egg yolk, usually final layers. This method leads to deterioration.
Sinopia– “Originally a red ochre named after Sinope, a town on the Black Sea that was well known for its red pigments. In fresco technique the term is used for the final preparatory drawing on the arriccio, which was normally executed in red ochre.”
Spolvero– “Outlines were pricked in this early method of transferring drawings around 1450. After the day’s patch of intonaco was laid, the corresponding drawing was placed over it and ‘dusted’ with a cloth sack filled with charcoal powder, which passed through the tiny punctured holes to mark the design on the wall.”
– excerpts from My Studios
– Images about from Giotto’s “Arena Chapel” 1305